In keeping with Oregon State University’s commitment to reduce the risk and spread of COVID‑19, the CBEE spring 2020 seminar series will be presented using Zoom remote conferencing.
Oregon State University
Monday, March 30
Zoom ID: 394-882-200
Metal-oxo clusters are modular building blocks for materials via hydrolysis reactions and coordination chemistry. Landmark discoveries in cluster-based materials include zeolites and MOFs. Understanding and controlling solution phase reaction pathways from monomers to clusters to materials (and vice versa) will lead to new discoveries from across the periodic table, and most aspirational, the next new class of cluster-based materials.
This seminar will present an overview of studies of metal-oxo clusters and their importance in functional materials and understanding reaction pathways, beginning with an introduction to small-angle X-ray scattering as a primary tool in studying cluster systems. Time permitting, presented cluster systems will include: supramolecular assembly and fractals of heterometallic U(IV) clusters and materials; diversifying Zr/Hf oxocluster chemistry with peroxide (and use in microelectronics); and behavior of Nb-polyoxometalates around neutral pH.
May Nyman has a multidisciplinary education with a BSc in Geology, an MSc in materials science and engineering, and a PhD in Chemistry. She worked at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque New Mexico from 1998-2012 in the environmental and energy sector, before accepting a faculty position in the Department of Chemistry at Oregon State University, where she has been since. May’s expertise include X-ray scattering and solution speciation of metal-oxo clusters, thin film materials, ion separations, POM chemistry and actinide chemistry.
Ghent University, Belgium
Monday, April 6
Zoom ID: 386-859-878
Physical, chemical and biological weathering has a constant effect on the earth’s landscape. This also impacts our building infrastructure, as stone and masonry are damaged by a combination of different processes, such as chemical attack, biological colonization, water infiltration and changes in temperature. Fluid flow, reactive transport, nucleation, dissolution, precipitation and mass transport are crucial processes occurring inside the pore system of geomaterials. To fully understand the macroscopical behavior of geomaterials in this context, their pore scale properties and processes have to be understood. The stone’s mineralogy and pore structure strongly affect key internal pore scale processes. These processes have been studied indirectly by micro- and macroscopic observations and laboratory experiments. Although this provides valuable information, the key drivers of these processes are to be studied at the pore scale. To explore these dynamic pore-scale processes, several non-destructive 3D and 4D methods are currently available. These tools provide additional important insights. Unravelling pore-scale processes in combination with pore scale modelling is an essential step towards understanding and predicting a geomaterial’s macroscopic behavior correctly.
The presentation discusses the current possibilities and challenges in non-destructive pore-scale imaging of geomaterials and how this data can be used as input for fluid flow models and their validation. Additional new developments at the synchrotron and on lab-based X-ray systems related to material characterization as well as to the understanding of pore-scale processes are discussed. Examples will be given of different experiments related to the characterization and the imaging of dynamic pore scale processes in (geo)materials.
Professor Veerle Cnudde received a doctorate in geology in 2005 from Ghent University (Belgium), where she has been a research professor since 2010. She is team leader of PProGRess, the Pore-scale Processes in Geomaterials Research group (Dept. of Geology, UGent) and is one of the coordinators of the Ghent University Expertise Centre for X-Ray Tomography. She was one of the co-founders of the UGCT spin-off company Inside Matters, which later merged with the spin-off company XRE, now part of TESCAN. She specializes in non-destructive imaging of geomaterials and has a strong expertise in real-time imaging of processes in the pore space. Research projects which she has initiated are strongly linked to weathering and fluid flow processes of porous sedimentary rocks, as well as conservation of building stones.
Brian K. Bay
Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Oregon State University
Monday, April 13
Zoom ID: 711-172-648
Research utilizing in situ (mechanically loaded) volumetric imaging and digital volume correlation (DVC) is growing rapidly as quality of and access to imaging equipment improves, with tissue biomechanics emerging as an important application area. This presentation describes recent research utilizing synchrotron-based phase-contrast microCT for the study of intact knee joints (mouse Str/ORT osteoarthritis model) and intervertebral discs (rat simulated injury and degeneration model) subjected to physiologically relevant mechanical loading. Collection of imaging data, pre-processing for microstructure-based DVC, and post-processing of functional response data will be described. Subtle differences in both mineralized tissues (distinction between articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone in the subarticular region) and soft-tissues (tracking of individual collagen fiber bundles) will be demonstrated, based on imaging at cellular levels of resolution.
Brian Bay is an associate professor in the Materials/Mechanics group in the School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering at Oregon State University.
He received all of his degrees from the University of California, Davis, progressing through programs in materials science, mechanical engineering, and biomedical engineering, with a Ph.D. granted in 1992. He then transitioned to postdoctoral and assistant research faculty positions with the Orthopedic Surgery Department at the School of Medicine at University of California, Davis.
Tissue biomechanics experimentation and x-ray microtomography merged within that environment in the form of Digital Volume Correlation (DVC), a methodology first demonstrated by Dr. Bay in a publication that received the Hetényi award from the Society for Experimental Mechanics in 2001. Increasing adoption of DVC within the research community led to granting of the Founders Award from the International Digital Image Correlation Society in 2016, and Dr. Bay now serves on the Board of Directors.
Current research is exploring methods of improving volumetric correlation through explicit microstructure linkages, sub-micron scale tissue biomechanics studies utilizing in situ phase contrast synchrotron x-ray tomography and advancing the application of image correlation methods in non-traditional areas such as advanced manufacturing, with Selective Laser Melting (SLM) of metal powders a particular interest.
Dr. Bay has active collaborations with researchers and facilities in the UK (University College London, University of Manchester, Royal Veterinary College, Diamond Light Source, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) and has received support from the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, the State of Oregon, and a variety of industry partners.
Associate Professor, Environmental Engineering
Oregon State University
Monday, April 20
Zoom ID: 974-324-699
Epistemology is the study of knowledge. I specifically study engineering knowledge (a thing) and knowing (a process), so I call that engineering epistemologies. It’s not a big field, but it is important. Engineers’ use, communicate, certify and change their knowledge in very particular ways. I study all that mostly through interviews and observations that I then go through over and over to look for patterns. I’ve found four ways engineering thinking is unusual. You may already be familiar with these patterns, but I think it’s helpful to name them:
Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering
Oregon State University
Monday, April 27
Zoom ID: 471-278-737
Mathematical models of the dynamics of infectious disease transmission are useful for forecasting epidemics, assessing intervention strategies, and inferring properties of diseases. The classical Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model resembles a dynamic model of a batch reactor carrying out an auto-catalytic reaction with catalyst deactivation.
Cory Simon earned his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Akron, studied mathematics at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada for two years, and earned his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. Cory is currently an assistant professor at Oregon State University in the School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering. His research group employs molecular models and simulations, machine learning, and statistical mechanics to discover nanoporous materials for gas storage, separations, and sensing.
Associate Professor, Chemical Engineering
Oregon State University
Monday, May 4
Zoom ID: 445-143-248
Chemical reactions on surfaces play an important role in many technologies, civil infrastructure, and chemical conversion. Understanding the mechanism and kinetics of these reactions can assist in the design of more efficient and selective chemical processes and more durable materials. In our group, we take a bottom-up approach using electron-structure calculations and statistical mechanics approaches to gain insights into surface interactions and the energy landscape of surface reactions or degradation. These approaches build the foundation for additional microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and kinetic models of the reaction network which allow us to study more complex molecular systems and predict how change in the catalyst affects individual reaction steps and the overall selectivity of the reactions network. Our research efforts include experimental components conducted within our group and through collaboration to provide a more holistic view of the various chemical processes at work.
This seminar will provide an overview of the research efforts in the Arnadottir Research Group related to surface reactions focusing on two major research threads: solvent effect in heterogeneous catalysis and corrosion.
Líney Árnadóttir earned her BSc in Chemistry at the University of Iceland and her MS and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering at the University of Washington, where she studied the role of water in electrooxidation of methanol using a combined computational and experimental approach. Before coming to OSU she held a post-doctoral research position at the University of Washington using various surface analysis techniques to study model surfaces for biomaterial applications.
Executive Director for Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Oregon State University
Monday, May 11
Zoom ID: 849-283-131
This seminar demonstrates OSU resources available for faculty, post docs and graduate students to maximize the impact of their research through technology and market development pathways.
Karl Mundorff is the Executive Director for Innovation and Entrepreneurship providing strategic leadership and directs operational oversight of innovation and entrepreneurship through the Research Office’s OSU Advantage initiative. Part of that responsibility is being the Co-Director of OSU’s Advantage Accelerator, the Principal Investigator on the University’s NSF Innovation Corps Site grant. He Co-Chair’s the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Roundtable which evaluates, develops and leverages I&E programs and activities across the OSU footpring.
He was recently the Director of Research Programs for VertueLab, a State Signature Research Center advancing the Cleantech cluster. He played an integral role in securing an Investing in Manufacturing Communities Partnership designation from the Economic Development Administration and is serving on a steering committee for Business Oregon overseeing an Innovation and Entrepreneurship strategy. Among many entrepreneurial endeavors, Karl served as President and CEO of BioReaction Industries which commercialized an air pollution control technology utilizing microbes to digest industrial process exhaust, growing the company from prototype to commercial success with engagements with Fortune 500 companies on three continents.
Associate Professor, Bioengineering
Oregon State University
Monday, May 18
Zoom ID: 143-219-596
High-performance assays that are easy to use and cost effective, and that can make rapid measurements on clinically-useful analytes, are needed for use in field settings for many health-related applications. The conventional lateral flow test is well suited for a number of point-of-care applications in the lowest-resource settings. However, for many analytes of interest, conventional lateral flow tests lack the sensitivity or quantitative resolution to have clinical utility. The rapidly growing field of ‘paper’ microfluidics is working to address these issues. In particular, we are developing devices composed of porous materials that can perform multi-step sample processing for use in field settings. Key to the successful operation of these devices is the development of methods to manipulate small volumes of fluids and quantify the level of molecular species of interest within them. This presentation will highlight progress in the development of paper microfluidic devices in the context of applications for infectious disease diagnosis (e.g., influenza) and therapy monitoring (e.g., for phenylketonuria treatment).
Elain Fu is an associate professor of bioengineering at Oregon State University. Elain received a Sc.B. in Physics from Brown University, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Physics from the University of Maryland, College Park. Prior to joining Oregon State University in 2013, Elain served as a research scientist and then as research faculty in Bioengineering at the University of Washington. She has published over 50 articles in peer-reviewed journals and is a co-inventor on multiple patents.
Monday, June 1
Zoom ID: 902-984-808
Advanced CMOS technology development has evolved from the use of geometric scaling to the introduction of novel materials and 3D architectures. These inclusions have added significant complexity to all aspects of process development and also for the fab and lab metrologies that support the development and manufacturing of those processes. Furthermore, the exploration of novel memory and beyond CMOS technology options will require the development of metrologies targeted at measuring unique device properties (i.e. magnetism, polarization, spin, etc). Much of the focus is on advancing dimensional metrology capabilities such as TEM, SEM, CDSAXS, etc. However, similar attention must be given to other device and material properties and the impact of increased process sensitivities and variations i.e. the measurement and control of the properties of atomically thin films and interfaces. Since lab-based methods are generally more suited to provide these enhanced capabilities, there is an increasing trend to use lab methods in a hybrid/near-fab approach. This requires the development of lab metrology tools that provide improved efficiency, accelerated time to data, and high reliability, all at a lower cost of ownership. Overall, it is a unique challenge that involves development and integration of advanced analysis capabilities, emerging machine learning applications and equipment supplier ecosystems.
Markus Kuhn received his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. After postdoctoral positions at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Tulane University he joined Digital Equipment Corporation where he worked on the development of advanced characterization methods to support future CMOS technology nodes. After Intel’s acquisition of DEC’s semiconductor division in 1998, he transferred to Intel’s Technology Development site in Hillsboro, Oregon where he joined the Corporate Quality Network Lab group. He is currently a Principal Engineer, tasked with leading Intel’s materials characterization pathfinding efforts. Dr. Kuhn has published 100+ refereed papers with a focus on the surface science of catalytic systems, thin film growth and the properties of new materials for semiconductor applications and has also coauthored a book chapter on the application of transistor strain methods. He holds 30+ patents in the areas of high k/metal gate, FinFET, and strain development for semiconductor applications. His research interests include the advancement of analytical capabilities for nanoscale devices and he has a broader interest in the synergies between analytical characterization methods, machine learning and process metrology to help enable emerging nanoscale device technologies.
Oregon State University
Monday, Jan. 6
The efficient capture, treatment and extraction of resources from contaminated waters is a critical need in an era of increased population growth and decreased fresh water supplies. For example, stormwater is the leading source of pollutants to near-shore waterways but also represents a viable source of fresh water to be used for environmental restoration and human uses. Bioswales are a cost-effective stormwater treatment technology but do not effectively remove dissolved contaminants as currently designed. The lessons learned about proper bioswale design after 5 years of study at the OSU-Benton County Green Stormwater Infrastructure Research facility will be presented. Additional future research needs directions will be also be presented.
Wastewater is another highly contaminated viable source of fresh water that requires energy intensive treatment processes. However, the addition of external waste carbon sources, such as fats, oils and greases, can boost methane production in anaerobic digesters to levels that will fully power the entire treatment facility. While viable in practice, the system is prone to failure. Complicating matters is an incomplete understanding of the microbial ecology within these FOG co-digesting anaerobic digesters. The lessons learned about how to shape microbial community structures in lab-scale anaerobic digesters to enhance performance will be presented. Additional future research needs about predicting anaerobic digester performance based on community composition will also be presented.
Tyler S. Radniecki is an associate professor of environmental engineering in the School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering at Oregon State University. His research focuses on sustainable stormwater and wastewater treatment processes with a particular emphasis on understanding the fundamental mechanisms involved in biological treatment systems. Dr. Radniecki is the co-director of the OSU-Benton County Green Stormwater Infrastructure Research facility located in Corvallis. His research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, Department of Defense, Department of Agriculture, state agencies and Oregon municipalities. In 2019, Dr. Radniecki received the National Science Foundation’s CAREER award to pursue his work on predictably shaping microbial communities in engineered systems to enhance biological treatment processes. Dr. Radniecki received his bachelor of science in environmental science from Bemidji State University and his master of science and doctorate in chemical and environmental engineering from Yale University.
Monday, Jan. 13
Semiconductor scaling, which underpins much of the digital world we live in, has historically been driven by advances in photolithography. From this perspective, the adoption of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography currently underway in the semiconductor industry is business as usual: revolution, reinvention, and reengineering. The basic materials of lithography are included in this upheaval – photoresists and their ancillaries will require fundamental changes to unlock the full potential of high-NA EUV imaging. Metal-based photoresists are a leading candidate for these advanced nodes and the chemistry, metrology, and integration challenges associated with bringing these materials to high-volume manufacturing present creative opportunities to materials scientists and engineers.
Stephen Meyers is the director of resist development at Inpria Corp., a Corvallis startup pioneering the development of metal-oxide EUV photoresists. He joined Inpria at its inception in 2008 after receiving his doctorate in inorganic chemistry from Oregon State University, where he researched solution deposited oxide electronics under Professor Douglas Keszler.
As a chemist at Inpria, Meyers has contributed to the company’s continued growth and technical leadership through the design and synthesis of functional chemistries for inorganic semiconductor, dielectric, resist and hardmask materials for display, optical, and lithographic applications. He currently leads a team of chemists responsible for the development and integration of metal-oxide photoresist chemistries and related processes for EUV lithography at the 5 nm node and beyond.
Arizona State University
Monday, Jan. 27
Jamey Wetmore is an associate professor in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society and co-director of the Center for Engagement and Training in Science and Society at Arizona State University. His work combines the fields of science and technology studies, ethics, and public policy in order to better understand how people shape technologies and, in turn, how technologies shape people. His research spans a broad array of topics and time periods, but most of it comes back to a recurring question: How do people design and create technological systems and, in turn, how do these technological systems help to define, reinforce and propagate specific values? He has worked in areas as varied as the Amish use of technology, automobile safety, computer science in East Africa, and nanotechnology. Much of this work is summed up in his co-edited book: "Technology and Society: Building our Sociotechnical Future" (MIT Press). He currently serves as the associate director for societal and ethical implications of the National Science Foundation's National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure Coordinating Office where he works to integrate the social studies of nanotechnology into the technical development of the field.
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry
Oregon State University
Monday, Feb. 3
The discovery of porous materials for post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) separation requires tailor-designed pores that can selectively capture CO2 over other prominent flue gas components (nitrogen, water). Herein, we report a rational materials design method that involves high-throughput computational screening and mining similar pore binding sites for strong CO2 adsorption and selectivity. Out of 325,000 hypothetically generated metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we identified a new active site, suitable for a CO2 monolayer to adsorb. Two porous MOFs with this specific active site were synthesized, exhibiting outstanding stability upon activation and on exposure to various conditions. In-situ CO2 loading studies facilitate the identification of the active site, and the breakthrough profiles highlight that the CO2 separation performance of these MOFs and CO2/N2 selectivities remain unaffected under dry and humid post-combustion thermodynamic conditions.
Dr. Kyriakos C. Stylianou was born in Larnaca, Cyprus. He received his PhD from the University of Liverpool under the supervision of Professor Matthew J. Rosseinsky and co-supervision of Professor Darren Bradshaw. Upon completion of his PhD, he was awarded with the prestigious Marie Curie fellowship and collaborated with Professor Daniel Maspoch at the Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology and Nanoscience. At EPFL Valais, he led the synthetic activity of the Laboratory of Molecular Simulation, and the research focus of his team was based on the synthesis of new porous materials for energy, environmental and sensing applications. In 2016, he was successful with the Ambizione Energy grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation to investigate the potential of MOFs as photocatalysts. Currently, he is an Assistant Professor in Chemistry at Oregon State University and his group’s research activity lies on the synthesis of new nanoporous materials namely metal-organic frameworks for carbon capture, photocatalytic hydrogen generation and water purification.
Senior Staff Scientist
Institute for Integrated Catalysis
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Monday, Feb. 10
Cu/SSZ-13 selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been commercialized for NOx (NO and NO2) abatement in diesel engine exhausts since about 2009. PNNL has been one of the first non-industrial institutions to conduct laboratory work to understand the nature of the active sites, reaction mechanisms, durability, and refinement of this important catalyst. In 2010, PNNL published the first open-literature paper addressing the improved activity and stability of Cu/SSZ-13 as compared to other zeolite-based SCR catalysts. Regarding the nature of the active sites, the PNNL team first proposed, based on spectroscopic investigations, that there are two distinct active Cu(II) species in this catalyst. Based on reaction kinetics and theoretical simulations, PNNL scientists first proposed that a “dual site” redox mechanism occurs for low-temperature standard SCR. In attempting to provide rational catalyst design principles for our industrial partners, PNNL scientists systematically investigated effects of catalyst composition (i.e., Si/Al and Cu/Al ratios), catalyst particle size, accelerated hydrothermal aging conditions, and cationic additives. Based on these parameters, in particular the distinct stability difference of the two active Cu(II) sites, PNNL scientists are now able to provide rational design suggestions based entirely on atomic-level fundamental understandings of this catalyst, rather than on trial-and-error. During the first decade of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalyst research, the PNNL team of scientists have published approximately 30 open-literature articles addressing various aspects of this catalyst. The work of PNNL scientists has been highly regarded in SCR research both in the US and internationally.
Feng Gao's interests involve the surface and interfacial chemistry in heterogeneous catalysis. Current research involves fundamental and applied studies of catalytic materials and processes for the control of vehicle exhaust emissions, including ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and low-temperature passive NOx adsorption (PNA). Work has also been carried out in removing other harmful components in engine exhausts, including N2O and CH4 via decomposition and combustion routes, respectively. Another area of my research involves work in basic energy research aimed at developing atomic-level structure/function relationships in supported transition metal and metal oxide catalysts used in the upgrade of bio-derived chemicals.
Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences
Monday, Feb. 17
Understanding the sources, transformations, and biological impact of metals in the environment is needed to design sustainable practices for crop production, assess the fate and impact of harmful contaminants, and develop accurate climate models. Some metals are essential micronutrients while others are harmful contaminants, and their solubility and reactivities are largely controlled by organic molecules that strongly bind metals in dissolved forms. Identifying the origin, chemical composition, and selectivity of these organic chelating agents in environmental systems has remained a formidable analytical challenge, however, due to the complexity of natural dissolved organic matter. To address this challenge, our work employs state-of-the art liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based methods for confidently identifying metal-organic complexes from environmental samples. This talk will focus on investigations into the biological processes that govern metal dissolution and uptake in alkaline soils, where poor metal solubility is often a limiting factor for the growth of food and biofuel crops.
Rene Boiteau is an Assistant Professor in Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University and holds a joint appointment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He obtained his PhD from the MIT/WHOI joint program studying oceanic iron cycling, and was a Pauling Postdoctoral Fellow at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory where he studied how microbes and plants influence the speciation of micronutrient and contaminant in soils. His current research focuses on developing predictive knowledge of how metals and organic nutrients impact environmental and human health.
Monday, Feb. 24
Organ movement during radiation therapy can be unavoidable in some cases and this poses challenges to dose planning in the radiation treatment-design. Numerical modeling of material deformation is a well-known strategy to aid deformable image registration. We present some preliminary results on modeling the prostate being pushed by neighboring organs with the finite element methods. Furthermore, we demonstrate visualization of stress tensors incurred from some deformations.
Yué Zhang received her doctorate from North Carolina State University in the field of applied mathematics. Her research in modeling nonlinear dynamics led her to join the research and development team at Michelin Tires Corp., where she continued with mathematical modeling on tire manufacturing defects and tire performance. In 2014, she joined the faculty of the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Oregon State University to conduct research in numerical simulation and scientific visualization. She was awarded funding through the National Science Foundation's Research Initiation Initiative in Computer and Information Science Engineering to develop visualization tools on stress tensors.
Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Thursday, Sept. 26
Structurally ordered oxides exhibit a broad range of structural, compositional, and functional properties, which can be further tuned by means of judicious elemental doping, strain and defect engineering. As such, they have found widespread application in energy storage and conversion devices, particularly for use as electrocatalysts, cathodes, and solid state ionics. However, as-designed materials can undergo dramatic changes due to ion diffusion, which, in many cases, leads to performance degradation and device failure.
This talk will highlight our most recent effort aiming to modify complex oxides through heteroepitaxy to achieve tunable functional properties. Combining in situ and environmental transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 18O2 labeled time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and ab initio simulations, we elucidate the structural and chemical evolution pathways in selected materials systems and reveal how such changes impact their functional properties. The first part of my talk focuses on Brownmillerite (BM)-structured SrFeO2.5 (BM-SFO), and rhombohedral-structured SrCrO2.8 (R-SCrO), which are perovskite (ABO3)-associated structures that contain ordered oxygen vacancy channels. We show that at relatively low temperatures, a topotactic phase transition between BM-SFO (R-SCrO) and perovskite SrFeO3 (SrCrO3) can be promoted, delayed, or prohibited based on the interfacial strain conditions, highlighting the importance of interface engineering in designing robust and efficient ion conducting materials. In another example, I will present the epitaxial growth and in situ TEM studies of LiCoO2 with or without overlayers to understand the Li transport processes and device failure mechanisms. In both cases, the high spatial and temporal resolution offered by advanced electron microscopy allows the visualization of reaction onset, kinetics, intermediates, and final products, which is critical for the rational design of functional materials.
Dr. Yingge Du is a senior staff scientist in the Materials Group of the Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate. Upon receiving his PhD from the University of Virginia, he joined PNNL in 2007 and became a staff member in 2010. He served as technical lead in the acquisition and commissioning of a new state-of-the-art oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system for the EMSL user facility located at PNNL. His current research focuses on growth and characterization of epitaxial metal oxide films and superlattices for energy conversion and storage applications.
Dr. Du is the recipient of a 2016 DOE Early Career Award, which supports him to conduct basic research that aims to understand, predict, and ultimately control cation/anion ordering and topotactic phase transitions occurring in transition metal oxide thin films. Achieving so will enable energy materials (e.g., catalysts, electrodes, and electrolytes) with desired functionalities to be designed, synthesized, stabilized, and harnessed for technological benefits.
Electrocatalysts are materials designed to provide a facilitating environment for electrochemical conversion and synthesis of materials and fuels from atmospheric molecules, which is one of the most important challenges facing societal need of energy in 21st century. One of the major hurdles developing electrocatalysts is the lack of holistic information of the evolving surface structure of materials during electrochemical operation. This is particularly formidable for oxygen evolution reaction (OER), where the oxidizing environment is corrosive and can significantly rearrange the electrocatalyst surface structure. Surface-sensitive X-ray probes from modern synchrotron sources including surface X-ray scattering and grazing incidence X-ray spectroscopy provide a very powerful suite of toolkits to decipher the surface subtlety and evolution. If utilizing these techniques in a well-coordinated approach, one can deliver thorough and deep fundamental insights of surface transformations (e.g. structural, chemical and electronic) during the electrocatalytic process.
In this talk, we will firstly render a brief survey of various surface sensitive X-ray techniques to specifically probe structural and chemical aspects of electrocatalytic materials, in particular the combined approach to differentiate the contribution from surface and bulk layers. Following the survey, we would like to present a few prototypic studies of model systems (e.g. functionalized graphene and metal oxides) for surface catalytic processes. First example is the detailed understanding of the noncovalent functionalization of graphene by small molecule aromatic adsorbates (e.g. phenanthrenequinone), which demonstrates persistent redox activity associated with proton‐coupled‐electron‐transfer reactions. Surface X-ray scattering analysis integrated with ab-initio calculations reveals how the prior introduction of defects and oxygen functionality (hydroxyl and epoxide groups) to the graphene basal plane effectively stabilizes its noncovalent functionalization. The second major demonstration is to present a comprehensive study of the emergent surface transformation of SrIrO3, the most active OER electrocatalyst reported to date, especially the amorphous boundary layer that forms from the pristine crystalline structure on the surface with OER cycling. In virtue of multimodal X-ray probing, a step-by-step transformation mechanism of the amorphization process could be explicitly illuminated. Our X-ray results show that the amorphization is triggered by the lattice oxygen activation and the structural reorganization facilitating coupled cation and anion diffusions is key to the realization of the OER active structure in the final SryIrOx form which exhibits stronger disorder than conventional amorphous IrOx, explaining its champion OER activity. In the end, I will give a short commentary on future opportunities in X-ray studies of multifunctional surfaces and interfaces for energy conversions enabled by the exciting advancements towards ultimate storage rings, in particular with enhanced high-energy and coherence capabilities.
Dr. Hua Zhou is a staff physicist at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in Argonne National Laboratory. He has managed and developed scientific programs dedicated for in-situ/operando and real-time X-ray studies of advanced materials synthesis, functionality and applications, in particular on surface/interface phenomena and processes in complex environments (e.g. thin film deposition of epitaxial nanostructures and heterostructures, emergent physics of strongly correlated condensed matters, versatile solid/liquid/gas interfaces for electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems) at the APS since 2011. He has extensive research experience using synchrotron-based X-ray techniques to characterize and uncover surface/interface structural modifications and dynamics of epitaxial thin films and heterostructures by using phase retrieval direct methods. Before he joined the APS, he was a postdoctoral fellow in National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory and in Chemical Science and Engineering Division at Argonne National Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. degree in Materials Science from University of Vermont in late 2007. His work and contributions on thin films/heterostructures and surface/interface X-ray scattering techniques have been featured in book chapters, reviewers and more than 120 peer-reviewed publications. He has presented about more than 30 invited speeches in international conferences, universities and national labs.
Water scarcity and the need to meet the increasing water demands have driven the development of alternative water supplies including seawater, brackish water, agricultural, municipal and industrial wastewaters. Given the energy intensity of existing water infrastructures, it is critical to develop sustainable paradigms for water and wastewater engineering that will balance energy consumption, economic benefits, ecological impacts, and social acceptance. This presentation will highlight a number of innovative technologies for improving process efficiency, reducing carbon footprint, recovering resources from wastewater, generating water with quality tailored for various uses, and an integrated decision support tool for produced water treatment and reuse.
Dr. Pei Xu is a professor in the Department of Civil Engineering at the New Mexico State University. She teaches courses in introduction to environmental engineering, physical/chemical/biological treatment processes, environmental engineering field session, advanced water treatment and reuse, sustainability in food-water-energy-environmental systems, and capstone design projects. Pei's research focuses on water reuse, desalination, and concentrate treatment for inland applications. The goal of her research is to address critical water shortage challenges in arid and semi-arid regions. Her work has been funded by NSF, DOE, BoR, USGS, Water Research Foundation, NASA, and water industry. She currently is a member and co-lead of the Engineering Thrust of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Re-Inventing the Nation's Urban Water Infrastructure (ReNUWIt). She was recently selected as the AAAS Leshner Fellow on Food and Water Security, PESCO Endowed Professorship and C. Herb Ward Family Endowed Interdisciplinary Chair at NMSU.
Doctoral Student in Chemical Engineering
Monday, Oct. 14
Surfaces that contact blood must often be biocompatible to resist fouling via protein adsorption while simultaneously presenting biological activity. We will describe our work toward a universal nanocoating platform created by attaching biomolecules to a hyperbranched pendent hydrophilic polymer brush. This approach integrates a generic priming layer with in situ surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Enzymes with desirable activity are then immobilized using highly specific click chemistry with non-canonical amino acids, which are incorporated into the peptide sequence at precisely controlled locations through genetic code expansion (GCE) techniques. The brush layer generally retains its protein-repulsive properties after the immobilization. This selectively fouling technology is expected to decrease the cost of bioactive coatings by providing a unified method for coating of various materials, and by eliminating expensive pre-purification steps required by conventional conjugation methods. These coatings may provide a safer and less expensive surface for bioprocessing, biomedical devices, biosensors, and other applications where resistance to protein adsorption must be coupled with biological activity.
William Prusinski is a third-year doctoral student majoring in chemical engineering at Oregon State University. He works in the Biomaterials and Biointerfaces Laboratory with mentorship from Profesor Kate Schilke, where he researches biocompatible and bioactive surface coatings comprised of enzymes immobilized on hydrophilic polymer layers. He studies the interactions between these coatings and proteins in complex media. The goal of this research concerns improving the antifouling properties of materials for biomedical device applications. Prior to studying at Oregon State, Will earned a Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry from Valparaiso University in 2016 and then interned in the Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis at the U.S. Department of Energy in Washington, D.C.
Master's Student in Environmental Engineering
Monday, Oct. 21
Half of the population of the United States relies on groundwater for domestic uses, and yet many of the aquifers across the nation contain low levels of contamination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A class of VOCs that are common and hazardous contaminants are chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). One method of treatment is through bioremediation by microbes capable of aerobic cometabolism; the induction of oxygenase enzymes in microorganisms growing on a primary substrate that fortuitously degrades contaminants. Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 is a toluene-utilizing bacteria that can cometabolically transform chlorinated ethenes through the activity of the toluene-oxidizing enzyme, toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO). This research investigated both the level of induction of the T4MO in KR1 grown on various growth substrates, as well as the novel development of co-encapsulating KR1 with a slow release compound (SRC) in gellan gum for long-term transformation of contaminants. The level of T4MO expression was evaluated by two methods: 1) Activity based labeling (ABL); a gel assay method used to identify catalytically active monooxygenases (e.g. T4MO), and 2) resting cell kinetic tests in which a known mass of cells grown on a primary substrate are exposed to a contaminant of interest and initial rates of degradation and transformation capacities are determined. Potential SRCs were co-encapsulated with KR1 in gellan gum macro-beads and evaluated through kinetic tests in batch systems over time.
An Oregon native from the Gorge area, Alyssa came to Oregon State University to obtain her Bachelor of Science in Environmental Engineering. Wanting to continue her education, she stayed to pursue her master's in the same field. Her interest in how microbial processes could be utilized for remediation led her to join Lewis Semprini’s research lab, which focuses on the bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater and soil. Alyssa’s research has focused on developing a novel immobilized system for in situ treatment of chlorinated ethenes.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University
Monday, Oct. 28
Hemostatic plug formation upon blood vessel breach is initiated by platelet recruitment, activation and aggregation in concert with thrombin generation and fibrin formation. However, a similar process can also lead to pathological processes including deep vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction, among others. We have developed narrow mechanism-specific agents targeting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation and demonstrated that experimental thrombosis and platelet production in primates is interrupted by selective inhibition of activation of coagulation factor (F)XI by FXIIa. In this seminar, I will present new data on the role of the endothelium in inactivating FXI, as well as studies on whether inhibiting FXI is beneficial in a non-human primate model of sepsis. I will present our first data from our clinical trial on the safety of inhibition of FXI, and plans to test the efficacy of FXI inhibition in dialysis. The understanding of the mechanisms by which the intrinsic pathway of coagulation promotes thrombus formation may support the rationale for the development of selective, safe and effective antithrombotic strategies targeting FXI.
A native of Rochester, Dr. McCarty received his bachelor of science in chemical engineering from SUNY Buffalo, and a doctorate in chemical engineering from Johns Hopkins University, where his research focused on the identification and characterization of tumor cell receptors for blood platelets and leukocytes. He performed his postdoctoral research on platelet cell biology in the Pharmacology Department at the University of Oxford and University of Birmingham, UK, in the group of Dr. Steve Watson. McCarty joined Oregon Health & Science University in 2005, where he holds an appointment as a professor in the departments of Biomedical Engineering and Cell, Developmental & Cancer Biology and in the Division of Hematology & Medical Oncology in the OHSU School of Medicine. McCarty serves as chair of the Biomedical Engineering Department and a fellow of the American Heart Association.
Richard Oleksak ('15 Ph.D., Chemical Engineering)
Contracting Research Scientist, National Energy Technology Laboratory
Monday, Nov. 4
Supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power cycles represent a potentially transformative technology for electricity production in the fossil, nuclear, and concentrated solar industries. A primary barrier to the realization of this technology is identification of structural alloys that can withstand exposure to these harsh environments for the very long operating lifetimes of the plant (> 20 years). This presentation provides an overview of research at NETL aimed at understanding the high temperature oxidation (corrosion) behavior of candidate steels and Ni-based superalloys in the environments expected in future sCO2 power cycles. Both in situ and post-exposure characterization methods have been used to gain insights into alloy corrosion processes at times ranging from the very initial stages of oxidation, to more than one year of exposure. The goal of this work is to achieve a fundamental understanding of degradation mechanisms that can ultimately limit the useful life of a structural alloy component in an sCO2 power cycle.
Richard Oleksak is a contracting research scientist working with the Structural Materials Team at the National Energy Technology Laboratory in Albany, Oregon. He received his doctorate in chemical engineering from Oregon State University in 2015. His current research focuses on understanding the oxidation and corrosion behavior of structural alloys in next-generation power systems.
Clean Water Services
Thursday, Nov. 7
Clean Water Services is a resource recovery utility serving approximately 600,000 residents of Washington County, Oregon. CWS was one of the first utilities in the country to receive a stringent effluent phosphorus limit and has spent decades learning how to successfully achieve an effluent limit of 0.1 mg/L total phosphorus through a combination of chemical and biological phosphorus removal. Over the last five years, CWS has invested heavily in research to better understand the fundamental mechanisms governing BPR stability. In this presentation, Adrienne Menniti, principal process engineer at Clean Water Services, will provide an overview of CWS as utility, describe how research fits into the CWS mission, and provide an introduction to the BPR research program. Dr. Menniti will also discuss her career path since receiving a Ph.D. in environmental engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and review job roles and opportunities for environmental professionals with post graduate degrees in the CWS organization.
Adrienne Menniti is principal process engineer at Clean Water Services, where she has worked since 2013. Prior to CWS, Dr. Menniti was a process engineer at C2HM Hill. Specializing in wastewater process design, Menniti earned both her master's and doctorate in environmental engineering from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2008 and a bachelor of science in civil/environmental engineering from the University of Cincinnati in 2001.
Graham Parker ('73 B.S., Chemical Engineering)
Emeritus Senior Staff Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Monday, Nov. 18
This presentation will highlight a nearly 45 year career of Mr. Parker as a Chemical Engineer at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The career path was not always as expected or planed, but was always challenging and satisfying at a laboratory that was dedicated to “Science in the Service of Mankind”. Mr. Parker’s research portfolio includes: water efficiency and wastewater management; atmospheric sciences/air emissions; aerosol physics; nuclear fuel reprocessing; environmental impact statements; indoor air quality; energy end-use metering; building efficiency; coal-to-liquids conversion; energy technology demonstration and deployment; equipment and appliances conservation standards development; and policy development. He will touch upon the education foundation at OSU that enabled him to pursue these research areas and the impacts of his research.
Graham Parker is emeritus staff at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In nearly 45 years at PNNL, he focused on the design, conduct, and analysis of the evaluations of the performance of buildings and equipment. He has worked with domestic and international clients to develop and promulgate energy policies, improve building energy and water efficiency and deploy new and emerging technologies. Parker is a 1973 chemical engineering graduate of Oregon State University. He is a fellow in the Association of Energy Engineers and a member of the AEE Hall of Fame. He is a certified energy manager and certified energy auditor. He is a member of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Expert Working Group on Energy Efficiency, serves on the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Regional Technical Forum, and is a member of the city of Richland's Utility Advisory Committee. He is the 2017 recipient of the Tom Eckman Lifetime Achievement Award for Energy Efficiency.
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Monday, Nov. 25
Physics at the nanometer scale can be vastly different from that of bulk materials. At the nanoscale, electrokinetics of ionic electrolyte, mass transport phenomenon in solutions, and light-wave interactions may not always behave in the ways we expect. In this talk, I will give an overview of my research on nanofluidics, nanoporous materials, nanoparticles, and nanophotonics, in which we take advantage of their unique physical properties at the nanoscale to improve the performance of biosensing and other applications.
Larry Cheng is an associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science at Oregon State University. His research interests are in the development of functional materials and miniaturized devices for biosensing, wearable sensors, and point-of-care diagnostics. His current research also deals with the electrical and optical properties of nanomaterials with the focus on devices for lighting and THz applications. He received his doctorate in electrical engineering from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 2008. Before joining Oregon State in 2013, he was a research assistant professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Diagnostics and Therapeutics Initiative at the University of Notre Dame, working on nanobiosensors and microfluidic technologies.